Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the blood cells that has the ability to replenish all blood cell types (Multipotency) and the ability to self-renew. This include monocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, platelets, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells and lymphoid lineage cells. These cell types are crucial for the regenerative processes needed for active tissue repair. Hematopoietic stem cells are produced in the pelvic, femur and sternal bone marrow and possess long-term and short-term regeneration capacities.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. These cell types primarily include cartilage, bone and adipose cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are found in very small quantities in bone marrow aspirate. Adipose tissue is one of the richest sources of MSCs, it has more than 500 times more stem cells in 1 gram of fat than in 1 gram of aspirated bone marrow but MSCs derived from bone marrow maintains effectiveness because it has a great capacity for self renewal.


Total Nucleated Cells
Total nucleated cell count by any method is a count of cells with nuclei. In order to properly represent the TNC cell count a correction calculation that removes nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) is performed. Total nucleated cells are a gross indicator of the quality of the bone marrow concentrate product.